Human trafficking is a major concern for those studying international human development and political economy issues such as population and migration, economics, politics, and international relations. This chapter examines problems associated with human trafficking through the discipline of international human development studies. It begins by addressing growing concerns about globalization and how it promotes inequalities that foster human trafficking. The chapter evaluates conflict, political instability, societal violence, and government corruption; it explores the role of consumerism and resource scarcity as well as societal and cultural values and how they contribute to the growing trade of trafficking in humans. Political instability, civil unrest, armed conflict, and societal violence may result in increased human trafficking. In areas devastated by war, displacement of populations is a common occurrence and with the evacuation and migration of communities, orphans and street children become easy victims for traffickers.