Perfect and pluperfect subjunctives
In Latin structure, quod also introduces clauses which are subjects or objects and whose verb is almost always in the indicative. Many grammars translate quod here as the fact that, although translating the verb of the substantive clause as a gerund often works just as well. Quod also introduces clauses which serve in apposition to demonstrative pronouns which may or may not be present. When the demonstrative is not present, such quod-clauses are indistinguishable from being the subject or object itself. This chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to o the adventures of Hercules is also provided. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.