Potential and optative subjunctives
This chapter presents two more uses of the independent subjunctive. In order to express a 1st or 3rd person command, Latin uses the present subjunctive. A present subjunctive in the 1st person conveying a command is termed the hortatory subjunctive. A present subjunctive in the 3rd person conveying a command is termed the jussive subjunctive. The present subjunctive in the 2nd person can express an indefinite subject, which may be translated with the aid of let one. It does not refer to a specific subject but conveys a universal truth of sorts. The chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.