Result clauses I
Causal clauses express a reason or an explanation for something. That is, they give a cause. In English they are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions since and because. There is a subtle underlying question in the meaning of causal clauses. This difference in meaning can be expressed in English by adding adverbial phrases modifying the verb of the causal clause. Latin causal clauses are introduced by one of the following subordinate conjunctions: quando since quia because quandoquidem since quod because quoniam since cum since, because. The conjunctions differ with respect to what mood the verb is in. Cum, on the one hand, always and only takes the subjunctive according to the sequence of tenses. The conjunctions differ with respect to what mood the verb is in. This chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided.