Quod substantive clauses
Temporal clauses express an activity which occurs at some designated time with respect to that of the main verb. When has a few different shades of meaning, which will have effects on how it is translated into Latin: expressing strictly simultaneous action, expressing the situation or circumstances which make the main verb true; expressing a habitual action, that is, one which occurs repeatedly. This chapter focuses on temporal clauses best translated as when. Latin has a variety of conjunctions to express when. Since cum has been encountered in several units under different guises, this chapter summarize its various uses. The chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.