This chapter deals with time clauses that occur either subsequent to the action of the main clause or prior to it, being introduced by before and after, respectively. It may seem intuitively odd that before introduces a temporal clause which occurs after the action of the main clause while after introduces a temporal clause which occurs before the action of the main clause. Latin does the same thing! Before is synonymous with until in certain contexts, when the main clause is negative, and in such situations the temporal clause does indicate a prior action. This chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.