While and until are two additional subordinating conjunctions which deal with contemporaneous action, much like when. Specifically, while may indicate an action which is completely coextensive with another action; that is, the extent of time of both the action of the main clause and that of the while clause coincide. The relationship between complete, partial, and no coextension-type subordinate clauses is also muddled in Latin, since the same conjunctions, primarily dum, are used for all three. Nonetheless, the mood of the verb can sometimes give a hint as to the level of coextension. Dum alone introduces a partially coextensive clause and is translated while. In such situations the dum clause takes the present indicative regardless of whether the action is taking place in the present or past. This chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided.