Hortatory and jussive subjunctives
There are three types of conditional sentences: general or logical conditions; ideal conditions; and unreal or contrary-to-fact conditions. Related to conditional sentences are conditional clauses of comparison. They compare a subordinate clause containing a hypothetical idea with the idea of a main clause. Such clauses are introduced by as if and are effectively just protases of unreal or contrary-to-fact conditions. The condition and consequence may be either factual or ideal. Latin too allows mixed conditions. Latin, like English, expresses the differences between the three types of conditional sentences by varying its verbal tenses and moods. It differs from English with respect to the exact tenses and moods it uses for each specific conditional type. This chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also provided. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.