Temporal clauses II – before and after
Verbal roots can form nouns, functioning in the different roles that nouns do: subject, object, object of preposition. Present infinitives can also serve as verbal nouns, though they are limited to subject and object roles. Being verbal, gerunds can take objects and also be modified by adverbial phrases just like verbs. Three special constructions involving the gerund are used to express purpose: ad + accusative of gerund; Ad hoc videndum venimus genitive of gerund + causa for the sake of; Hoc videndi causa venimus; genitive of gerund + gratia for the sake of Hoc videndi gratia venimus. The chapter also presents matching exercises with unedited Latin excerpts and rough English translations. A short reading relating to the adventures of Hercules is also presented. These readings give the course a strong sense of narrative cohesion, providing opportunities to develop comprehension and translation skills.