This chapter analyzes the policy debates and challenges in Japan's attempts to foster global human resources. It explains why the Japanese government and society stress the need for global human resources, by focusing on the lack of policy-level initiatives and individual-level incentives for studying and working outside Japan. The chapter discusses how the policy debate on global human resources started as an initiative to encourage Japanese youth to study and work abroad. It also discusses practices for fostering global human resources through various initiatives by educational institutions and industries. The next step of the transformation in the vision and orientation for the internationalization of university education in Japan could be formed and developed through the ongoing practices of university education and student learning. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the achievement and remaining challenges of this national-level movement for fostering global human resources.