This chapter presents the Australia's approach to the care and education of individuals with disabilities. Australia has been inhabited for more than 20,000 years by the indigenous population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Most Australians or their immediate ancestors are immigrants who have arrived since 1788 from over 200 countries. Some came as free settlers, others as convicts, asylum seekers and refugees escaping conflict in their home country. Australia is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the British Commonwealth. The Australian government signed the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2008. Subsequently, there was a notable shift in the policy related to funding and the curriculum focus for the whole country. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) reported the differences in structures for primary and secondary schools. New South Wales and Queensland have the highest percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) Australians.