Psychological principles and theory include knowledge of scientific theories and research findings that form the basis for school psychological practice. In addition, psychological theory includes human learning and development, personality theory, intelligence, and language development. This includes biological basis of behavior, developmental milestones from birth through adolescence, and motivation/cognition. A series of graphic organizers outlines the content knowledge covered on the Praxis Subject Assessment School Psychologist exam. The school psychologist considered many factors that could be impacting this student's ability to maintain focus during class time. Neurologically, the school psychologist understands that most attention difficulties stem from dysfunction in the orbital circuit of the frontal lobe. The theory of multiple intelligences involves the idea that all humans have core abilities in various areas of intelligence. Reaction formation is the process of unconsciously changing an unacceptable feeling into its opposite. It is a common defense mechanism used by the ego to prevent threatening thoughts from entering awareness.