Environmental problems, which have become increasingly global in reach, are the focus for efforts to understand and bring about environmental governance. Examples of global environmental problems include climate change, biodiversity degradation and species loss, land cover and land use change, acidification of the oceans and the global fisheries crisis. All of these have, in their different ways, adverse implications for both conservation and development, and all of them arise directly as a result of the interactions between conservation and development objectives. This is because they are problems of collective action: they relate to the functions and services of ecosystems whose usage is essential to the workings of the global economy and also the seemingly insatiable pursuit of ever-increasing growth levels. Therefore these patterns of usage, good or bad, have implications not just for the user but for much broader groups of people and, potentially, for all humanity. Broadly speaking, the rules, people, processes and mechanisms through which decisions are made to frame and respond to environmental problems are the subject of environmental governance.