After 1848, nationalism replaced liberalism as the major force shaping the political destiny of Europe. Prior to 1848 men such as the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini saw no inherent inconsistency in advocating both nationalism and liberalism. Mazzini maintained that the nation represented the political entity through which individuals connected to others and fulﬁlled their rights and destinies. Mazzini was emphatic that the greatness of one nation should not come at the expense of the liberties and greatness of another. Giuseppe Garibaldi, another strong and charismatic supporter of Italian nationalism, agreed; he fought in the war for Uruguayan independence in South America, for example. Mazzini and Garibaldi both participated in the establishment of a Roman Republic in 1849, but Louis Napoleon of France supplied troops to help destroy the republic and restore the papacy to power in Rome. It had become clear that the uniﬁcation of Italy required more than just the high ideals of Mazzini or the popular charisma of Garibaldi. Supporters of uniﬁcation began to realize that national goals might have to take priority over a liberal agenda in order to achieve their objectives.