The crisis in most of the America’s central cities has been documented. This ﬁnal section of the book is an extensive examination of the rebirth that has taken place in metropolitan areas and their central cities. As stated in my introduction, a new chapter in American urban history began sometime around 1990-a chapter that involves a virtuous circle in which many aspects of urban life improve together. The social and economic situation in most of American’s major central cities is still far from what one would hope it to be, but the pattern of general improvement is undeniable. The improvements will be documented extensively in the chapters that follow. This chapter begins with a catalog of reasons for the general improvement. The causal factors are arranged roughly in chronological order. Causes of urban rebirth fall into three categories: forces that were part of the evolution of urban areas, actions taken in response to the urban crisis, and factors exogenous to the urban condition that just happened.