Leadership, Politics, and Public Health
The Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen established the United States Marine Hospital Service (USMHS). Federal government passes a law encouraging the use of the smallpox vaccination. American Medical Association is founded to improve medical education and promote licensure laws to eliminate competition from homeopaths and other irregular practitioners of medicine. Louis Pasteur discovered the Germ Theory of Diseases. The National Board of Health was created. The power to enforce interstate quarantine laws was taken away from the Marine Hospital Service and given to the National Board of Health. The name of the U.S. Marine Hospital Service is changed by congressional law to United States Public Health Service (USPHS). It is authorized to study and investigate the diseases of man and their spread, and to publish information for the public. The Sheppard-Towner Act passed by Congress. The law provided grants-in-aid to states for maternal and child health programs for the purpose of reducing maternal and infant mortality.