This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts covered in preceding chapters of this book. The book examines the inclusion of local autonomy in the revision of the Korean constitution of 1997 and its gradual implementation has given local political forces a democratic voice in affecting Korean-American relations. The United States has often held Korea up as an example of a successful American foreign economic assistance program and the inculcation of American democratic political values. The book focuses on the rise to the fore of anti-American sentiments in South Korea preceding the December 2002 presidential election seen as a major wakeup call for Seoul and Washington. Anti-Americanism is conceived as a product of an ongoing symbolic struggle over how to define and redefine the United States in South Korea. The Kwangju incident remains the single most critical event that sparked specific anti-American actions, such as attacks on official United States buildings.