This student-friendly text provides a detailed and up-to-date assessment of Japan's foreign policy since 1945, including policy options and choices that Japan faces in the twenty-first century. Using information based on interviews with policymakers in Japan, the author provides new insight into Japan's foreign policy options and analyzes the nation's evolving role in international affairs. The book begins with a brief overview of major issues related to Japan's foreign policy since the mid-nineteenth century, and then focuses on the direction of Japanese foreign policy from 1945 to the present. It examines issues such as Article Nine of the Japanese Constitution, national security needs, the way Japan views the world around it, the role of nationalism in setting policy, and the influence of big industry. It also includes material on Japan's response to 9/11 and the war in Iraq. Designed for both undergraduate and graduate level courses, the text includes Discussion Questions, maps, a detailed bibliography with suggestions for further reading, and an Appendix with the Japanese Constitution for easy reference.