The Management World in the Twenty-First Century
This chapter explores a series of motivational theories that were largely developed and tested in North America. International managers have to be alert to which needs seem to be most relevant in different locations, and they also have to be aware of needs that might not be familiar from the home context. Discrimination on the basis of gender, age, race, religion, language, physical ability, sexual preference, and other similar factors is unlawful in North America and Western Europe, but accepted in many other locations. Extrinsic factors essentially relate to the lower-order needs on Maslow's hierarchy, and intrinsic factors to the higher-order needs. Herzberg argues that there are two sets of factors associated with any job and with a person's motivation relative to the job. Delegation and participation essentially go hand in hand because effective delegation relies on employees accepting the responsibility that is delegated, and acceptance of responsibility is enhanced by participation in decisions, including decisions regarding delegation.