The Cultural Environment
This chapter explores various theories of leadership that are commonly accepted in North America and ask if and how these can be transferred to other locations. It examines some non-North American beliefs about effective leadership, as well as what we know about cross-cultural leadership characteristics. The chapter also focuses on leadership rather than management, people often refers to leadership in the context of management and as a function that managers seek to perform along with their other activities. Mangaliso and Newenham-Kahindi stressed indigenous leadership styles such as Ubuntu and Indaba, endorsing factors such as supportiveness, relationships, and extended networks, as well as spiritualism and tribal destiny. A major worldwide leadership project, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study, undertaken by House, with a large number of co-researchers, provides some evidence that the charismatic and transformational concepts are valid ones around the world.