International Production & Operations Management and Supply-Chain Management
Businesses produce goods and services that are marketed to potential consumers. All other functions of an organization, such as marketing, finance, human resources, accounting, research and development, and information technology, interface with operations management to produce goods and services. With the availability of fastpaced computers and advanced models of enterprise resource planning, international companies can achieve high-level efficiencies in their production and operations management (POM) systems.1 Operations management is not restricted to the manufacture of goods but also deals with the production of services. POM concepts are equally applicable in the service sector and in manufacturing. Service industries such as banking, insurance, health care, retail sales, and not-for-profit organizations also make use of POM techniques. Take for example, a large hospital. In order to operate efficiently, the hospital has to coordinate all the activities that need to be completed
to provide the best possible patient care. Most of the activities performed by the medical director, doctors, nurses, hospital administrators, technicians, and other staff fall within the field of operations management. These activities include scheduling surgeries, assigning doctors and nurses, preparing the surgical wards, buying medicine, equipment, and other supplies, managing the food service, supervising the staff, taking care of the repairs and maintenance, and keeping the hospital clean. In order for the hospital to run efficiently, its functions have to be coordinated and managed as if they were an assembly line operation. Whether the hospital is in New York or Lagos, Nigeria, similar operational systems must be applied.