A Survey of Measures Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness Based on Users' Web Activity
This chapter explores Web surfers' reactions when they are forced to view advertising. It investigates four aspects of ads themselves that may moderate perceptions of pop-up advertisements as intrusive: timing of the display, duration of the ad, congruence with editorial content, and perceived informational and entertainment value. The declining click-through rates of conventional banner ads and rising doubts about Web sites' advertising business models are driving concerned advertisers beyond banner ads. To the degree that the option of changing stations is taken away or all stations are playing ads at the same time, increased psychological reactance should be manifest against the interruption (advertising) and perhaps radio stations themselves. Theoretically, extended interruptions should be perceived as greater threats to freedom than should shorter interruptions, which should result in greater psychological discomfort and greater reactance. Exploration of the relationship between intrusiveness and memory is needed to understand the benefits and drawbacks of using forced exposure ads.