This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses how cultural safety compares to other theoretical frameworks and models that attempt to enhance the understanding of how to care for populations that are outside of the mainstream, including Campinha-Bacote's model of cultural competence and Leninger's transcultural theory. It defines health disparities, taking into account the historical experiences of specific people groups, such as African Americans, and the historical trauma that other groups such as Native Americans have experienced, which also has implications for health outcomes. The book then discusses critical race theory and its value and utility in helping one to understand the role of race and racism in contributing to health disparities within the healthcare establishment. It also uses a postcolonial feminist lens to specifically examine the problem of gender-based violence in the society today.