chapter  3
The unevenness of economic globalization
Pages 28

Our introductory chapter provides a very brief overview of the three most recent waves of globalization. This overview is followed, in Chapter 2, by a more complete discussion of the first and second waves, dated from 1870 to 1914 and from 1945 to 1979, respectively. In this chapter, we extend the earlier, initial discussions by introducing a number of indexes to detail the most recent wave of globalization (i.e., the wave that began around 1980). In doing so, we show the extent to which countries are globalized, both generally and in terms of their economic interactions at various points in time. Accordingly, our focus is on several aggregate/overall measures of globalization (i.e., our four composite measures) and on the related dimensions that reflect the extent to which national economies are integrated with the global economy. Through the presentation and discussion of these indexes, we begin a broader discussion of globalization. Doing so serves to inform and frame the material that we present in later chapters, where we present the findings from our empirical examinations of the relationships between cross-societal cultural differences and different facets of economic globalization.