This chapter examines both the acknowledged and the 'deutero-Pauline' Pauline letters. It also examines the acknowledged Pauline epistles and asks whether it is possible that shorter letters lie behind them. Paul is likely to have come from Tarsus but unlikely to have studied with Gamaliel. His thought is rabbinic in style but we cannot accept for certain that he was a Pharisee. Perrin and Duling summarize the case for denying genuine Pauline authorship to the Pastoral Letters. Statistics may be difficult to interpret; but of the 848 words (excluding proper names) found in the Pastorals, 306 are not in the remainder of the Pauline corpus. Ephesians has long been recognized as not an authentic Pauline letter, even if it stands in the Pauline tradition. The authenticity of Colossians is accepted by a greater number of scholars than the authenticity of Ephesians, but the author regards Colossians as similarly pseudepigraphal.