Immanuel Kant: cognition, freedom and teleology
The equation "idealism = Berkeleyanism" remained strong enough throughout the twentieth century for Burnyeat to use it to deny that any ancient philosophy might correspond to what is called "idealism'!. The idealist philosopher claims that an idealist is one who upholds the doctrine that "the whole universe the whole universe, is in some sense conscious, it has what recognise as the higher forms of consciousness". Berkeley's ontology, which is undeniably problematic, is not the only logical result of a critique of mechanism, and many idealists maintained this critique of mechanism without postulating that the distinction between subject and object be erased. However, Berkeley's reasons for his extreme empirical realism are developed in response to a deeper problem, a target that Moore, had he wanted to refute idealism adequately, should have addressed. British idealist philosophers of the turn of the twentieth century, it was Bradley who was, in fact, Moore's target.