This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book deals primarily with the relationship between cities and technology. If technologies seem to move fast, cities have a much greater inertia: their physicality and social milieu make them slower to change and generally much more inclined to organic adaptations than sudden transformations. Future work and thinking needs to recognise that there might be not such a thing as a one-size-fits-all set of digital hardware, software and urban operating systems that can be imposed onto a relatively standard set of urban issues and functions. Internet of things (IoT) debates have concentrated on the creation of systems of human and non-human objects and actors. They are often included as a central part of the smart city rhetoric in the way they enable the automation of various urban functions.