This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book summarises the core concepts developed by the literature on innovation systems and the main characteristics of the ability approach. It aims to identify similarities and links between innovation and capabilities and focuses on the main analyses and models that examined the relationships between innovation and growth, growth and human development, and innovation and human development. The book also focuses on growth, human development and innovation indicators trying to verify whether there are any regularities in their respective levels and variations, and whether it is possible to find groups of countries/ regions with similar behaviour. It proposes a different approach to the formulation of innovation policies that takes into account people's freedoms and capabilities and focuses on macroeconomic issues. The book discusses the centrality of employment in the three processes of innovation, growth and human development.