In order to undertake grammatical analysis, both static and dynamic analyses are necessary, as mentioned in Section 14.2.1. The static approach refers to constituent analysis and stratifi cation analysis, whereas the dynamic approach refers to a multi-dimensional analysis of the data. Static analysis alone will not suffi ce to provide a comprehensive description of the features of the grammatical fact; it needs to be combined with a dynamic analysis. This combined approach takes the form of two triangles (the ‘double-triangle’ methodology) encompassing six angles; that is, the minor triangle of form-meaning-value, focusing on the linguistic items, and the major triangle of Putonghua-dialectsOld Chinese. The latter takes a broader perspective by referring diachronically to Old Chinese and synchronically to dialects of the Chinese language, other than Putonghua .