chapter  1
Crisis in Criminal Justice Policy
Pages 16

In 1977, C. Ray Jeffrey, soon to be elected president of the American Society of Criminology, declared unhesitantly that “punishment has failed. . . treatment has failed.”1 This assertion is perhaps overly sweeping and, some might argue, empirically problematic. But whatever

its factual merits, Jeffrey’s statement accurately expressed the sentiments of many of his academic peers and, indeed, of much of the general public at this time. Nothing that was

being done about the “crime problem” seemed either to prove or promise to be successful-

our “war on crime” was in a shambles-and the public agitated for order to be restored. However, the uncertainties as to just what solution would rectify this troubling state of affairs

were considerable; a crisis in American criminal justice policy prevailed.2