Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) has faltered because of the inability to motivate residents and legitimate users to act against crime. As seen in Chapter 4, evidence in support of a link between physical design features and intervening factors such as increased social cohesion and use of an area is rarely found in the evaluations. This may be due to the lack of attention paid to these factors. Studies that include intervening elements fi nd little support for the connection between physical design and changes in social cohesion, support, and other intervening constructs. In addition, the confl icting evidence concerning the infl uence of physical features on crime may be due to confl icting levels of social cohesion, community atmosphere, surveillance, and other intervening variables that are unaccounted for in the studies.