This fi rst chapter attempts to show how crime and fear have changed over time and remain problems that need to be addressed. It is this information that forms the basis for continued calls for crime prevention actions. After examining the levels of and changes in actual crime in society, this chapter will examine the impact of crime on victims and society. It will also examine the companion issue of fear of crime. Indeed, the “fear of crime” poses a greater, more far-reaching problem for society and its members. Demonstrating a need for crime prevention is not diffi cult to accomplish when you consider the levels of crime and fear in society.