chapter  2
Analysing intelligence
Capacity and democracy
Pages 31

This chapter discusses the central question of defining democracy in terms of elections and in terms of the state capacity that is required to maintain freedoms' between elections. It develops a conceptual framework that facilitates comparative analysis of intelligence as practised by both state and non-state actors. The analysis of democratisation starts with the idea of a break with authoritarianism but there is no single path thereafter to the sunny uplands of liberal democracy. Since the turn of the twentieth century much has changed; there have been breaks with authoritarianism followed by serious efforts to democratise, such as in Tunisia. But more often the break has culminated in civil war, for example, in Libya. The chapter defines how capacity and democracy are manifested in the specific case of intelligence. It explores how to analyse reforms in the governance of intelligence.