chapter  3
Intelligence in and beyond the state
A conceptual framework 1
Pages 29

This chapter develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of intelligence democratisation. It examines some older models of what is distinctive about the security sector of the state. The chapter includes the corporate or private security sector and what may be called para-states, an umbrella term for non-state, non-corporate groups involved in intelligence activities, for example, militias and criminal organisations. Discussions of the state, security and intelligence during the Cold War era commonly talked about the national security, secret or coercive state, reflecting the spread of secrecy, vetting, militarism and authoritarianism on both sides of the divide. The chapter argues that the existing tools for the analysis of intelligence democratisation are inadequate. The literature on corporatism alerts to the close integration of public and private actors but, in some respects, this older model has been transcended by the more recent emphasis on governance.