chapter  6
Explaining democratisation 2
The national dimension
Pages 27

This chapter identifies some key facilitators of democracy: the international or regional context, civil society, and economic base, rule of law, political process and state institutions. Civil society is central to democratisation but it is composed very differently in different areas; in some countries it requires resurrection, in others reinvention. Progress will be significantly slowed if economic activity is dominated by neoliberalism and the resulting inequalities and if independent civil society organisations are poorly resourced, struggling for attention within the political marketplace dominated by oligarchic media organisations. The chapter discusses the role of mass media because the secrecy within which intelligence is conducted has always led to tense relations with journalists. An economic society mediating between state and market is another of Linz and Stepan's requirements for democratisation. It is the central claim of modernisation theory that economic development and democratisation go together and conventional wisdom that a market economy is a necessary if not sufficient precondition for democracy.