chapter  VI
42 Pages


I n the last analysis both primitive and civilized man will only take the trouble to acquire objects because they have value for him. The process of valuation in its widest sense may be considered as a subjective appreciation, and at higher levels of mental development a conscious judgment, based upon the functional interrelation between a person and an object of desire. A previously neutral object or good must acquire interest and become a desirable object or good.1 In being desired, such object has become an object of value. The agent strives to acquire and preserve such objects because, being valued and desired, they can bring satisfaction when finally obtained. They may give satis­ faction either as primary values when they are desired for their own sake; or as secondary or instrumental values when their attainment makes possible the gaining of values at a further remove from the agent.