This chapter examines the issues associated with communicating scientific and medical findings to the general public. It also examines the scientific literacy of general audiences and media relations in science and medicine. Communicating scientific and medical research findings to the general public is called science or health communication, although science communication encompasses both. Effectively communicating science or medicine to general audience is challenging because the education, knowledge, and attitudes toward science and medicine are markedly broad. The primary issue to consider before communicating research findings to the news media is whether or not the research has been thoroughly vetted through the full peer-review process of journals. Civic scientific literacy is an adequate understanding of scientific terms and concepts that an individual must have to read a daily newspaper or magazine. Many organizations have public relations specialists who deal directly with reporters and coordinate news reports and interviews with individuals inside of an organization.