This chapter helps readers to write scientific Titles and Running Titles, and write comprehensive Abstracts. Both the Title and Abstract should be informative and fully comprehensible to the reader as an isolated communication because each is most often read without the accompanying full-text journal article. Scientific Titles should summarize the content of the manuscript in approximately 10 to 12 words. Running Titles are abbreviated Titles that appear on the top or bottom, respectively, of each internal page of the manuscript and published journal article. Running Titles identify the pages comprising the manuscript that you submit to a journal and the published journal article. The last step in developing an effective Title is to carefully edit the purpose statement into a concise, direct, and specific statement. Abstracts are read more than any other content section and thus are arguably the most important section of a journal article.