chapter  5
The Political Factor
Pages 36

This chapter traces the changes in Indian strategic culture over the last two decades. Yitzhak Klein in his Theory of Strategic Culture retains the first two levels, but uses the term 'operational' instead for the third, that is, organisational. Deepa Olappally finds the rise to power of the conservative led formation, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), as a 'critical variable'. In case of the Air Force, technological ramifications of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) are a major consideration. In the Indian case, the drivers for nuclearisation include the nuclear relationship between China and Pakistan, the decreasing scope for tests with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) constraints coming into place, bureaucratic thrust of the nuclear strategic enclave, etc. Even in internal security operations, its doctrine has been one of considerable restraint in the use of force even though the military has expansive powers under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).