Since virtually everything in western Christendom was reshaped by the economic and demographic growth of the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, it is no surprise that education was transformed as well. In 1000, advanced learning was concentrated in a few monastic and cathedral schools. In 1300 the leading institutions of advanced learning were the universities, of which there were perhaps twenty. At a humbler level, in 1300 a growing network of lower schools, often called grammar schools, taught the basics of literacy in Latin to the children of those willing to pay. In those three centuries there were massive increases in the number of students and teachers. There were also significant changes in the organisation and curricula of the schools.