chapter  10
Pages 11

Text is used - often by one and the same literary critic - in at least three different meanings. It refers to the arrangement of certain shapes in black ink on the page (as distinguished from the illustrations). It also refers to a mental entity that we derive from these shapes as signs, one that survives reprintings even in modernized form - we might call this the 'literary utterance'. This meaning distinguishes between what is of the essence from what is supplementary (the text vs. the notes). Finally, text is used to refer to something that seems to carry its interpretation within itself and therefore has authority over those who use it (think of statements like 'but this is not what the text says').