Administration and Scoring Issues
The use of the MMPI-A or MMPI-A-RF with adolescents requires specific training and experience in several areas. First, the clinician should be adequately trained in the essential features of test theory and test construction, as well as more specifically in the development and uses of these instruments. Therefore, the test user should have completed graduate-level courses in psychological testing and reviewed introductory or basic texts, such as those by Archer and Krishnamurthy (2002) and by Williams & Butcher (2011). Those seeking greater familiarity with the development of the MMPI-2 including the composition of the basic validity and clinical scales, or basic interpretive strategies, should also refer to the general guides provided by Friedman, Bolinskey, Levak, and Nichols (2015), Graham (2012), and Greene (2011), and to BenPorath (2012) for comparable information on the MMPI-2-RF. Archer (1987b), Hathaway and Monachesi (1963), and Marks et al. (1974) provided reference works concerning the use of the original MMPI form in the assessment of adolescents. Before administering the MMPI-A or MMPI-A-RF, the clinician should also thoroughly review the MMPI-A manual (Butcher et al., 1992), or the MMPI-A-RF manual (Archer et al., 2016a), which provide summaries of the development, administration, scoring, and interpretation of these instruments.