Marx and Engels and the English working-class movement before the publication of the Manifesto. The contact was first made personally by Engels when the latter was writing his Condition of the Working Class in England in 1843.1 Through Mary Bums, with whom he began to live soon after his first arrival in Manchester, he met John Watson, a socialist tailor, who was a leading figure there among the Owenites, and James Leach, a man of ability and character who was among the outstanding Chartists in Manchester. In the summer of 1843 Engels went to Leeds, primarily to meet George Julian Harney, then virtually the editor of the Northern Star. Engels made a vivid impression on Harney and they remained friends until the former's death; it is not unlikely that it was through this friendship that Harney became, with the exception of Bronterre O'Brien, one of the few English socialists before the foundation of the International who had knowledge of, and interest in, the socialist movements in Europe. It was perhaps through these connections that Engels began to write, in the Labour press, articles intended to explain, and arouse interest in, the revolutionary movements abroad. In November 1843, in the Owenite New Moral World he published an admirable article on the Advance of Social Reform on the Continent. There he sought to show that, even if there were differences of approach, there was bound to be the overthrow of capitalism in England, France and Gennany. There might be divergent opinions from time to time; but it was urgent for the different movements to be in touch with each other. Mter his return to Germany, he wrote in December, 1844, a second article in the same journal called The Swift Progress of Communism in Germany. At
this stage, he \vas still arguing, influenced perhaps by his then close relations with Moses Hess, that the intelligentsia would be the makers of the German revolution. Certainly, he had found it difficult, in the police-state that Germany was then, to find ways and means of exercising any influence on the workers.