This, then, is the first principle set out by Engels. Universal suffrage may be so successful an instrument of socialist progress that it only pays anti-socialist governments where recourse is had by socialists to rebellion; indeed, anti-socialist governments themselves may be driven into illegal action for fear of the results of constitutionalism. From this first principle, there follows a second which is mainly the result of technological change. "All the conditions on the insurgents' side have grown worse," he wrote. "An insurrection with which all sections of the people sympathise will hardly recur . .. '-rhe 'people,' therefore, will always appear divided, and, with this, a powerful lever, so extraordinarily effective in 1848,
is lacking." The new weapons, and the new technical organisation, not least the actual character of the organisation of towns, all make the barricades practically useless. The time for the extempore revolution is over. There may be street fighting in the future. But it can only be successful when "the masses themselves have already grasped what is at stake, what they are going in for, body and soul. But in order that the masses may understand what is to be done, long, persistent work is required."