chapter  6
A new race of pilgrims
Pages 9

After fi ve centuries of republican expansion, Rome declared its fi nal frontiers and, from Hadrian’s edict of 117 A.D. onwards, ceased to expand. What had once been vague and temporary boundaries between the world already civilised by Rome and the world yet to be incorporated became static limes defi ned not by temporality but by permanence – earth parapets, wooden palisades, and stone walls (Luttwak 1976: 57-60). In doing so, Rome made a public declaration of where civilisation ended and barbarism began. What we see in today’s European Union is precisely the same. The EU may lack the physical fortifi cations and professional garrisons which marked the self-imposed limit of Rome, but the principle of drawing a line and declaring it to be the boundary between civility and savagery remains. It is not on the ground that we should look for the public declarations of Europe’s frontier. It is in the map.