chapter  8
The Effect of Context Upon Responses to Conditioned Inhibitors
Pages 14

This chapter examines motivational models of schedule-induced behavior premise in the light of recent evidence that there are two classes of schedule-induced behaviors. It first serves as a major basis for differentiating the first type of induced motivational state from a second type that potentiates exploratory activities. Unlike the first type of reinforcer-induced state, which potentiates highly organized patterns of species-typical behavior, the second type enhances locomotor and other skeletal activities, including conditioned operant responses, that operate on and change the subject's environment. Proportional distributions of the type described are reported by Killeen, who measured changes in the level of schedule-induced activity, a behavioral measure suspected to the behaviors recorded in the experiment. The chapter proposes that intermittent positive reinforcement induces not one but two types of motivational states following reinforcer termination. Brett and Levine have found experimental evidence for this type of coping mechanism in a study of schedule-induced drinking in rats.