chapter  5
Noun/adjective and pronoun agreement
Pages 11

The auxiliary verb kuwa "be" may be used before main verbs in various tenses to express the notion of "anteriority" or "simultaneity" between two actions or states, in the past or in the future. These types of constructions imply notions such as "by then", "then/at that time", or "in that time period". In particular, the auxiliary kuwa "be" followed by a perfect tense verb expresses an action or a state that was completed in the past or will have been completed in the future, in reference to another action or state. Placing the marker on the auxiliary verb emphasizes the negation, denying any affirmative presupposition, as shown by the double negation in the English glosses. The notion of "still" is expressed in the present tense by placing the auxiliary verb -ngali "still be" before the main verb, in both the affirmative and the negative forms.