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Introduction

Trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT) is conducted as a three-level, threephase, case formulation approach that I developed at the Federal University of Bahia, in Brazil (de Oliveira, 2011b). TBCT’s foundation is in CT, as developed by Beck (1979); however, it has a unique approach to conceptualization and techniques that makes it a distinct intervention in modifying patients’ CBs, especially those about the self (de Oliveira, 2014).