Toby's text makes part of the process visible: the actual speaker's portrait of himself and his familiar everyday environment becomes converted through the magic of print into an alter ego fantasy protagonist 'going down a strange street'. Toby's text has several orienting features, but does not group them all at the start, as the Rothery and Martin model of stages would require. On the contrary, the special factors that supervene when narrative exchanges take place through fictional writing are highly significant. Orientation, for instance, and what William Labov calls 'evaluation' will both tend to be much more intricate in written narrative than in oral, since substantially mediated narrators bring in a whole set of refractive exchange relations. Britton is committed to the view that fictional narratives, including those invented by children, belong to a special discursive category which stands apart from those processes of exchange.