chapter  4
Voice, Sequence and Control
Pages 27

That facile slogan 'the death of the author' has distracted attention from more subtle intimations of mortality in the case of the socalled 'implied author'. Who or what is the latter? If, as we have remarked, any utterance presupposes an implicit structure of enunciation, then two participant positions may seem, on the face of it, to constitute a textual exchange: those of an enunciator or message-sender and an enunciatee or message-receiver. (Such, for example is the assumption made by Greimas and Courtes 1982: 105.) In a written narrative fiction, the enunciator's position apparently corresponds to what literary criticism knows as the implied author. The earliest account of this elusive vice-regent figure is given by Wayne Booth, who argues that the governing consciousness discernible in a story, the source of its constituent choices and values, is a projected self-image, 'an ideal, literary, created version' of the person who actually wrote it (1961: 71-5). Taking up Booth's catchy term, a number of other narrative theorists reinterpret the 'implied author' in slightly different ways. Seymour Chatman (1978: 151) sets it within a schematic sixpart model:

Real author> Implied author> Narrator> Narratee > Implied reader> Real reader.